Aina za Madawa ya Kulevya na Athari Zake kwa Mtumiaji

madawayakulevyaTatizo la madawa ya kulevya limetokea kuwa janga kubwa duniani kote, watu wengi wameathirika na janga hili. jinsia zote wanaume, wanawake, na vilevile rika zote vijana na wazee pia.
Hapa tutaongelea aina mbili za madawa ya kulevya yaani Cocaine na Heroin.

Cocaine
Hutokana na majani ya mmea uitwao kitaalamuErythroxylum coca bush.

Aina hii ya dawa ya kulevya hutolewa kwa mifumo ifuatayo;

  • Unga ambapo mitaani hujulikana kama ‘coke’ na hutumika kwa kuvutwa puani kama unga, au kuyeyushwa na maji na kuchomwa kwenye mshipa wa damu.
  • Crack ambapo mitaani hujulikana kwa jina hilohilo crack au rock, na hutengenezwa kwa kuchanganywa na kemikali. Na hutumika kwa kuvutwa kama sigara.

Cocaine pindi inapoingia kwenye damu huenda kwenye ubongo na kuzuia ufyonzwaji wa vihisishi vifuatavyo: dopamine, norepinephrine na serotonin, kutoka kwenye ubongo. Hivyo ubakia kwenye ubongo. Na vihisishi hivi husababisha ile hali ya furaha, mchangamfu na kujisikia mwenye nguvu kitaalamu euphoria. Na huweza kuwa kwenye hali hii kwa nusu saa tu.
Mara tu baada kutumia dawa hii dalili zifuatazo hutokea

  • Mishipa ya damu husinyaa (constricted blood vessels)
  • Joto la mwili huongezeka
  • Mapigo ya moyo huongezeka
  • Shinikizo la damu
  • Dilated pupils

Matumizi ya muda mrefu ya dawa hii ya kulevya huleta madhara yafuatayo; Pamoja na kwenda kwenye ubongo husambaa sehemu nyingine za mwili na mzunguko wa damu

  1. Moyo – Kwenye moyo huweza kuleta Shambulizi la moyo (heart attack) na vilevile mapigo ya moyo yasiyo na mpangilio (Arrhythmia) hivyo unaweza kufa ghafla tu.
  2. Ubongo – Mishipa ya damu kwenye ubongo inaweza kusinyaa na kupelekea kupata Kiharusi, hata kwa kijana. Vilevile unaweza kupata ugonjwa wa akili (substance abuse pyschosis).
  3. Mapafu na mfumo wa hewa – Uvutaji kupitia pua huweza kupelekea tatizo sugu la kutokwa damu puani kila wakati na mafua yasiyo pona, kupoteza mfumo wa harufu, na ikivutwa kama sigara kuharibu mapafu moja kwa moja.
  4. Mfumo wa chakula – Cocaine husababisha kusinyaa kwa mishipa ya damu kwenye tumbo na utumbo hivyo kusababisha vidonda na kuweza kuharibu kabisa mfumo huu kwa utumbo kuoza.
  5. Mafigo – kutokana na shinikizo la damu mafigo yanaweza kushindwa kufanya kazi vizuri, vilevile cocaine inaweza kuleta madahara moja kwa moja kwenye mafigo kitaalamu Rhabdomyolysis.
  6. Ngono – ingawa cocaine huweza kutumika kama njia ya kuongeza hamu ya ngono huweza kusababisha kushindwa kumaliza kile ulichokianza. Matumizi sugu ya dawa hii ya kulevya huleta madhara kwa jinsia zote yani kwa wanaume na wanawake.
  7. Na vilevile huweza kufanya kuwa tegemezi wa dawa hii.
  8. Kwa wanaotumia sindano na kushea wanaweza kupata maambukizi ya virusi ya hepatitis na vya ukimwi.


Nini hutokea baada ya matumizi ya muda mrefu ya kokeni?

Baada ya kutumia cocaine kwa muda mrefu punde unapoacha tu kutumia dalili zifuatazo hutokea;

  • Unyogovu
  • Uchovu
  • Kushindwa kuzingatia na kutokuwa makini
  • Kukosa uwezo wa kuwa na furaha au kusikia raha
  • Kuongezeka kwa tama zaidi ya kutumia cocaine
  • Kujisikia kuumwa, maumivu, baridi na kutetemeka.

Ikitokea mtu akitumia zaidi ya kiwango kinachotakiwa kwa muda mfupi yaani overdose, kifo cha ghafla huweza kutokea kutokana na madhara yafuatayo;

  • Moyo kushindwa kufanya kazi
  • Kiharusi
  • Degedege mara kwa mara
  • Mfumo wa hewa kushindwa kufanya kazi


Heroin

Hujulikana vilevile kama diamorphine, hutokana na mmea huitwao kitaalamu opium poppy. Heroin kwa mfumo wa Morphine hutumiwa hospitalini kama dawa ya maumivu makali ya ghafla (acute pain) kwenye maumivu makali ya kifua wakati wa shambulizi la moyo, na kwa maumivu ya mtu aliyepata ajali, vilevile baada ya upasuaji, na maumivu sugu kwenye kansa. Hivyo hutolewa kwa kuangalifu mkubwa.

Aina hii ya dawa ya kulevya huweza kutumika kwa kuvuta kwa pua, kuvuta kama sigara na kwa kuchoma kwenye mshipa. Siku hizi watu hutumia njia ya haja kubwa na kwenye uke, ambapo kuta hufyonza heroin na kuanza kufanya kazi ndani ya sekunde arobaini.

Heroin mara tu baada ya kuingia kwenye damu kuenda kwenye mfumo wa neva na kukandamiza ufanyaji kazi wake, ndio huweza kutumika kupunguza maumivu.


Dalili za mtu aliyetumia heroin

Dalili ambazo hutokea mara tu anapotumia Heroin:

  • Kujisikia mwenye furaha na raha
  • Kupishana Kusikia hali usingizi na tahadhari
  • Midomo kuwa mikavu
  • Misuli kuishiwa nguvu
  • Kuhema polepole
  • Warm skin flushing
  • Mikono na miguu kuwa mizito
  • kope za macho kulegea


Nini madhara ya matumizi ya muda mrefu ya heroin?

Madhara ya matumizi ya muda mrefu wa dawa hii ya kulevya hutokana zaidi na matumizi ya sindano na vifaa vingine visivyo salama

  • Maambukizi kwenye kuta na milango ya moyo
  • Maambukizi ya ini na virusi (kama hepatitis C na HIV),
  • Maambukizi ya figo
  • Maambukizi ya mfumo wa hewa
  • Maambukizi ya ngozi na majipu

Dalili ambazo hutokea mara tu unapoacha kutumia heroin;

  • Kutotulia
  • Maumivu ya misuli na mifupa
  • Kutapika
  • Dalili hizi hufikia kilele ndani ya masaa 48 hadi 72 na hufika kikomo baada ya wiki.

Pombe

Pombe ni dawa ya kulevya ya burudani inayotumiwa kila wakati vibaya sana. Inaweza kupunguza uwezo wa kujizuia, kusababisha maamuzi mabaya na kwa hivyo pia kuongeza hatari ya kuhusika katika ngono bila kuwajibika. Uchunguzi umepata kwamba kunywa pombe kabla ya kufanya ngono huongeza pakubwa uwezekano wa kuhusika katika ngono isiyo salama.

Matumizi mabaya ya muda mrefu ya pombe huchangia shida ya kutoweza kufanya ngono na uharibifu wa maini. Uharibifu wa maini ni hofu kubwa sana hasa kama mtu atahitajika kuanza kutumia ARV (dawa za ukimwi/HIV). Uharibifu wa ini unaweza kupunguza uwezo wako wa kuvumilia ARV.

Dawa nyingine za kulevya zinaweza kugawanywa kwa vikundi viwili, kutegemea na madhara yake. Hata hivyo kumbuka kwamba watu huitikia tofauti kwa dawa tofauti za kulevya. Dawa zote za ‘uleweshaji’ na ‘utulizaji’ zinaweza kusababisha uraibu.

Dawa Za Kulewesha – Vichangamsho

Dawa za kulewesha ni zile ambazo huchangamsha ubongo. Huleta hisia ya kujihisi vizuri na imani kwa muda. Baada ya hisia hii huwa kwa kawaida kuna kipindi cha kujihisi vibaya, au kudhoofika. Hii inaweza kuwafanya watu kutaka kutumia vichangamsho zaidi ili kujihisi vizuri. Mchakato huu unaweza kusababisha uraibu kwa haraka sana.

Dawa hizi za kulewesha ni pamoja na zifuatazo:

Miraa: Inayoitwa pia mairungi, mirungi, veve, gomba, cat, kitty

Mdma Na Ecstasy: Inayoitwa pia E, Dawa ya Mapenzi, XTC, X

Kokeini: Inayoitwa pia coke, chanel

Methamphetamine Ya Chembechembe: Inayoitwa pia tik, tina, crystal, meths, krank, tweak, ice, X-tina, sugar, glass

Vitulizaji — Vikandamizaji

Vikandamizaji hupunguza utendakazi wa akili au mwili, na vina athari ya kutuliza. Baada ya kutumia dawa hizi za kulevya watu huhisi wana hofu au kukasirika, na wanataka kuzitumia mara kwa mara. Hii inaweza kusababisha kutaka kuzitumia kwa kira mara na uraibu kwa urahisi.

Heroini: Inayoitwa pia smack, skag, brown, H, brown sugar, white junk.

Bangi: Inayoitwa pia dagga, cannabis, weed, blunt, grass, herb, boom, joint, spliff, ganja, hash, skunk, pot, majani

Mandrax: Inayoitwa pia buttons, smarties, double barrels, tembe za furaha, mandies, mandrake au mandrix

GHB: Inayoitwa pia Liquid E au G

Pombe: Vileo ndio vitulizaji vinavyotumiwa sana

Types of Drug Abuse in Washington State

Drug abuse is a common issue across the United States, and Free by the Sea is a rehabilitation center based in the State of Washington that helps people who are battling drug abuse and substance addiction. Our staff can help you recover from several of the commonly abused drugs through a safe and effective treatment program.

Serving the Pacific Northwest, including Washington (Vancouver), Oregon (Portland), and Alaska.

Any drugs, medications, or other substances that trigger the state of consciousness, euphoria, or both could be abused and result in addiction. These types of drugs are found across a spectrum of compounds and are not limited to only illegal substances.

Legal drug abuse often occurs with prescriptions that individuals obtain from their physicians. Rather than follow the dosage instructed, they take more. Patients often become addicted to medications by accident as well. Benzodiazepines such as Klonopin and Xanax, for instance, can be prescribed to patients who have panic attacks. The patients could be instructed to take them as needed, but they should not take them for longer than a few weeks. When the medications are taken for too long, the body can become tolerant to them, resulting in addiction.

Generally, drugs that are abused are separated into three categories: stimulants, sedatives, and narcotics. The federal government has strict regulations for prescribing each category of medication. The medications are rated based on their potential for generating the tolerance that leads to addiction and their potential for abuse, which specifies the intensity and onset of euphoria.

Free by the Sea can help you get through any type of drug abuse, whether it involves illegal or legal drug use.

Types of Drugs Commonly Abused

The following nine types of drugs are the most commonly abused, and they can affect users in different ways.

1. Heroin

As a destructive opioid, heroin can lead to seizures, psychosis, and hallucinations when it is abused. Heroin injections can also spread diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis. This drug is known to cause serious health issues when it is abused because it interferes with the brain’s receptors. Users can become physically dependent on it very quickly, requiring them to take more and more to achieve the same high, but too much heroin can lead to a fatal overdose. Individuals who take heroin always require professional rehabilitation because the symptoms of withdrawal may be life-threatening.

2. Cocaine

Cocaine is a very dangerous stimulant even when taken in small amounts. It induces euphoria, increases blood pressure, and accelerates the heart rate. The drug may lead to fatal strokes or heart attacks for some users. The abuse of cocaine is also known to cause financial, legal, and physical issues. Due to the severe consequences of using cocaine, users require immediate professional treatment.

3. Crack

A potent form of cocaine, crack is often smoked and suddenly creates an intense euphoric sensation for a short while. Crack has turned into a problem because it is cheap and easy to buy and use. Abusing the substance, however, can lead to immediate addiction. Abusers are also at risk of suffering heart attacks and strokes with every use. Long-term use can cause liver, kidney, and lung damage. Abusers must seek help in rehabilitation facilities because the withdrawal symptoms are dangerous.

4. Hallucinogens

PCP (phencyclidine) and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) are hallucinogens, which means that they make users feel, see, and hear things that are not real. While they experience hallucinations with these drugs, users lose touch with reality and enter mental states of disconnection, as if their bodies and minds are not working together or connected. Some users of PCP and LSD enter violent states of psychosis. Serious injury could occur while hallucinating on these substances, which have caused permanent neurological damage in cases of repeated abuse. Withdrawing from hallucinogens is not easy, and abusers will need professional treatment in a rehab facility.

5. Amphetamines

Accelerating the user’s bodily and mental functions, amphetamines can cause manic periods of distress in abusers. These periods are usually accompanied by extreme paranoia, inexplicable behavior, and delusions. Some amphetamine abusers become very violent and attack loved ones unintentionally and could suffer permanent physical changes in appearance, irreversible brain damage, and nerve damage. Amphetamines are harsh, dangerous drugs, and users need medical attention and safe rehabilitation in professional facilities.

6. Marijuana

Marijuana is the most common illegal drug that is abused, and many people begin using it as a recreational drug in social situations. Continued abuse of marijuana can lead to addiction, and the substance can affect the physical coordination, memory, and mental functions of users over time. Some users have even lost relationships, jobs, and homes because they abused the drug. While it is easy to abuse marijuana, it is not easy to stop using it, so professional treatment is very important to refrain from abuse.

7. Alcohol

Abusing alcohol can cause psychological, physical, and social problems, and it can lead to the destruction of relationships, friendships, and marriages. A lot of alcohol abusers drink so much that their bodies are unable to handle it. Sometimes this requires that they are hospitalized for alcohol poisoning. Abusing alcohol over a long period can result in irreparable heart and liver damage and may lead to the drinkers being arrested for driving under the influence, public intoxication or other law-related issues. Furthermore, alcohol abuse can lead to injury or death to the people around them while they are under the influence. Alcohol withdrawal can be fatal because of delirium tremens, which is a symptom with the potential to trigger heart failure or stroke. Refraining from drinking also is not easy when it becomes a habit because of mental and physical issues. Professional assistance is often necessary for abusers of alcohol.

8. Inhalants

Inhalants are not technically in the category of narcotics, but people abuse them and can become addicted to them over time. Some of the substances that are considered inhalants include spray paint, butane, and nitrous oxide that they can inhale to achieve a high. Inhalants cause euphoric and numb feelings for a brief while, so repetitive use is common. It is very risky to abuse inhalants because they could lead to permanent brain damage or sudden death. Users must stop inhaling the substances before damage occurs.

9. Prescription Drugs

The second-most commonly abused drugs are prescriptions, including everything from anti-anxiety medications to sedatives and ADHD pills to anti-seizure medications. The abuse of prescription painkillers such as Vicodin and Oxycodone during recovery from injuries is also very common. Abuse of prescription medications can be very dangerous if the abusers do not seek treatment.

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